NGSSS Science Supplemental Resources (2024)

NGSSS Science Supplemental Resources

student Packet

Biology

SC.912.L.16.1

Department of Mathematics and Science

THE SCHOOL BOARD OF MIAMI-DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA

Ms. Perla TabaresHantman, Chair

Dr. Lawrence S. Feldman, Vice-Chair

Dr. Dorothy Bendross-Mindingall

Ms. Susie V. Castillo

Dr. Wilbert “Tee” Holloway

Dr. Martin Karp

Ms. Lubby Navarro

Ms. Raquel A. Regalado

Dr. Marta Pérez Wurtz

Mr. Logan Schroeder-Stephens

Student Advisor

Mr. Alberto M. Carvalho

Superintendent of Schools

Ms. Maria L. Izquierdo

Chief Academic Officer

Office of Academics and Transformation

Dr. Maria P. de Armas

Assistant Superintendent

Division of Academics

Mr. Cristian Carranza

Administrative Director

Division of Academics

Department of Mathematics and Science

Dr. Ava D. Rosales

Executive Director

Department of Mathematics and Science

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to provide students with enhancement tutorial sessions that will enrich the depth of content knowledge of the Biology 1 course. Each tutorial session is aligned to Biology Annually Assessed Benchmarks of the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS) as described in the course description and the Biology Item Specifications and include an ExploreLearning Gizmos activity and/or a science demonstration followed by assessment questions.

The Nature of Science Body of Knowledge (BOK) is embedded in all lessons. Teachers are encouraged to generate an inquiry-based environment where students grow in scientific thinking while creating and responding to higher-order questions.

Table of Contents

Classification, Heredity, and Evolution - SC.912.L.16.1 Use Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment to analyze patterns of inheritance. (Also assesses SC.912.L.16.2)

Activity 1 -Evolution: Mutation and Selection...... 3

Activity 2 – Virtual Lab Punnett Square...... 12

Activity 3 - Virtual Lab 2 - Punnett Square: Scenarios...... 12

Activity 1: Evolution: Mutation and Selection

Vocabulary:adaptation, allele, chromosome, evolution, fitness, gene, genotype, mutation, natural selection, phenotype, trait

Prior Knowledge Questions

  1. Imagine a white lizard and a brown lizard sitting on a brown rock. A hawk is circling overhead hunting for its next meal. Which lizard do you think the hawk would most likely try to catch? Explain your choice.

______

  1. Now imagine that the same two lizards were sitting on a dune of white sand. Which lizard do you think the hawk would then most likely try to catch? Why?

______

Gizmo Warm-up

How long could a parrot survive in Antarctica? It would probably not survive long. Parrots do not have adaptations—or helpful characteristics—to survive icy cold weather. Because of this, a parrot is not fit for Antarctica. Fitness describes how well an organism can survive and reproduce in an environment.

In the Evolution: Mutation and Selection Gizmo™, you will see how a species’ fitness can change over time as it becomes better adapted to its environment.

  1. On the SIMULATION pane, what is the Average fitness of the population? ______
  1. On the CONTROLS pane, experiment with the Background color sliders.
  1. Which background color results in the highest fitness? ______
  1. Which background color results in the lowest fitness? ______

Part A: Variation

Introduction: An organism’s traits, or characteristics, are controlled by genes. Genes are located on rod-like structures called chromosomes. Different versions of genes that code for the same trait are called alleles. In this Gizmo, eight alleles control the color of bugs.

Engage Question: Where does variation in a population come from?

  1. Get the Gizmo ready:
  • Set the red value to 100, the green value to 255, and the blue value to 50 on the CONTROLS panel.
  1. Observe: Hold your cursor over one of the insects on the SIMULATION pane. The two rod-like structures under Genotype on the CONTROLS pane represent chromosomes. The three letters next to each chromosome represent alleles.

Which alleles does the insect have? ______

The alleles carried on an organism’s chromosomes make up the organism’s genotype.

  1. Observe: An organism’s alleles interact to produce a certain trait. The physical expression of that trait is known as an organism’s phenotype. In the Gizmo, phenotype is expressed in RGB (red, green, blue) values. What is the phenotype of the insect?

Red: ____Green: ____Blue: ____

  1. Run Gizmo: Move the Sim. speedslider all the way to the left. Click Play (). You will see the insects move to the left in pairs. The pairs mate and produce a set of four offspring.

As soon as you see at least one offspring with an oval around it, click Pause (). Move your cursor over the circled offspring.

  1. What is its genotype and phenotype?

______

  1. How does its genotype and phenotype differ from the non-circled offspring?

______

  1. Explain: The change in the circled offspring’s genotype was caused by a mutation. A mutation is a change in a gene. Mutations happen when a mistake is made during the copying of a cell’s chromosomes just before the cell divides.

How might mutations cause variation into a population?

______

  1. Collect data: Move the mutation rate sliderto 3.0, and click Play. Allow the Gizmo to run for another 10–15 generations. (You can see the generation number on the bottom left of the SIMULATION pane.)

Click Pause. Try to find a set of parents that has four different chromosomes. (If you can’t find any, allow the Gizmo to run a few more generations and try again.) Complete the table.

Organism / Genotype of chromosome 1 / Genotype of chromosome 2
Parent A
Parent B
Offspring 1
Offspring 2
Offspring 3
Offspring 4

Look at the offspring chromosomes. Label the chromosomes identical to parent A’s chromosome 1 with “A1.” Likewise, label copies of parent A’s chromosome 2 with “A2,” parent B’s chromosome 1 with “B1,” and parent B’s chromosome 2 with “B2.” Circle any mutated chromosomes.

  1. Analyze: Study the completed table.
  1. Look at the inheritance patterns. What do you notice?

______

  1. Can a single offspring inherit chromosomes from only one parent? Explain.

______

Did any mutations occur in this set of offspring? If so, which chromosome mutated?______

Challenge yourself: You have already learned that mutation is one source of variation in a population. Based on what you have just seen, what is a second source of variation? ______

______

Part B: Survival of the Fittest

Engage Question: Are some organisms more likely to survive and reproduce than others?

  1. Get the Gizmo ready:
  • Click Reset ().
  • Set red to 100, green to 255, and blue to 50.
  • Move the mutation rate slider to 1.0.
  1. Count: Move the Sim. speedslider all the way to the left. Click Play.
  1. After the parents mate, click Pause. How many offspring are there? ____
  1. Click Play. After the birds eat, click Pause. How many offspring are left? ____

In nature, as in the Gizmo, more offspring are born than can survive. Because of this, the offspring must compete with one another for survival. In this Gizmo, the insect offspring compete to avoid being eaten by birds.

  1. Observe: Move the Sim. speedslider one notch to the right. Click Play, and wait for 20 generations to pass. You should see a variety of insect phenotypes.
  1. What different colors of insects do you see?

______

  1. How do you think this variation might affect the competition between the offspring?

______

  1. Analyze: Scroll over the insects and note their fitness (shown under the Phenotype). The fitness of an organism reflects how well it is adapted to its environment.

How does fitness relate to the color of the insects?

______

Predict: How do you think an insect’s fitness will affect is chances of being eaten by birds?______

  1. Collect data: In nature, chance alone can affect whether an individual survives. However, general trends in survival rates can be seen by studying a larger group of individuals.

Use the Gizmo to study survival trends for five generations. Record the data you collect in the table below. Write the Generation numand Average fitness in the first two columns.

To find the average fitness of the survivors, click Pause after the birds feed. Add the ten surviving offspring’s individual fitness values together and divide by ten.

Generation number / Average fitness of generation / Average fitness of survivors

Recognize trends: Study the table above. What trends do you see? ______

  1. Analyze: In most situations, were the fittest insects or the least fit insects most likely to survive? Explain how the data from your experiment supports your answer.

______

  1. Think and discuss: The principle of natural selectionstates that the fittest organisms are most likely to survive and reproduce. Was this demonstrated in your experiment? Explain.

______

______

PartC: Evolution

Introduction: You learned in activity B that fit individuals have a better chance of surviving and reproducing than individuals that are less fit. In this activity, you will observe how natural selection affects a population over time.

Engage Question: How does a population change over time?

  1. Get the Gizmo ready:
  • Click Reset ().
  1. Experiment: Set the Background color to the values shown in the last column of the table below. Record the Average fitness of generation 1 in the second column of the table. Move your cursor over the insects and find the individual with the greatest fitness. (In the first generation, all the insects will have the same fitness). Record that individual’s phenotype in the table’s third column.

Move the Sim. speedslider a quarter of the way to the right. Run the Gizmo, and complete the tablefor each listed generation. (The generation number does not have to be exact.)

Generation number / Average Fitness / Fitness of Fittest Individual / Phenotype of Fittest Individual (R, G, B) / Background color
1 / red = 100
green = 255
blue = 50
25
50
75
100
150
200
300

  1. Describe: Examine the data collected for trends.

How did the phenotype of the fittest individual change over time? ______

  1. How did the population’s fitness change over time? ______
  1. The process by which populations change over time is known as evolution. This Gizmo only demonstrates how one trait—body color—can evolve.
  1. Predict: Based on what you have just seen, how do you think the population will evolve if you made the Background color purple?______
  1. Test: Set red to 120, green to 0, and blue to 160 to make a purple background. Click Play. After 300 more generations have passed, click Pause.
  1. Was your prediction correct? Explain. ______
  1. Make connections: Why do you think it is necessary for there to be variation in a population in order for evolution by natural selection to occur?______
  1. Challenge yourself: Do you think evolution by natural selection would occur if individuals with low fitness had just as much a chance of surviving and reproducing as individuals with high fitness? Explain your answer.______
  1. Apply: Look carefully at the picture below and you will see an insect called a katydid. Katydids evolved from grasshoppers through natural selection. Use what you have learned to explain how this could have happened.

______

______

______

______

______

______

______

______

______

Assessment 1 – Evolution: Mutation and Selection

  1. Which bug has the greatest fitness for this environment?
  1. Bug A
  2. Bug B
  3. Bug C
  4. Bug D
  1. What is the best description of the evolution of camouflage by natural selection?
  1. Insects see the background they want to blend into, and then actively change their genotype to match the background.
  2. Insects rub against the leaves, bark, or dirt that they live on, so that the pigments from these substances are transferred to their bodies. Their offspring inherit this coloration and blend in more effectively.
  3. Mutations occur frequently, so that each offspring insect is a completely different color. Based on their coloration, the insects seek a habitat they can blend into.
  4. Mutations affecting coloration occur randomly in insects. Insects with mutations that help them to blend in are more likely to survive than others, and gradually these helpful mutations accumulate in the population.
  1. Assuming sexual reproduction and that no mutations have occurred, which of the following offspring genotypes is NOT possible for the given parent genotypes?
  1. Genotype A
  2. Genotype B
  3. Genotype C
  4. Genotype D
  1. Two parent bugs from the simulation each have the same genotype and blend in perfectly with the background, as shown below. The fitness of each parent is 100%. Which of the following statements is most accurate?
  1. Offspring with mutations will not have 100% fitness. All other offspring will have 100% fitness.
  2. Approximately three-quarters of offspring will have 100% fitness.
  3. Approximately half of the offspring will have 100% fitness.
  4. None of the offspring will have 100% fitness.
  1. Which of the following is/are a source of variation in insect color?
  1. Mutation
  2. Sexual reproduction
  3. Both A and B
  4. Neither A nor B
  • Computer Lab: For maximum engagement and effectiveness, students should have their own computers to perform this virtual lab. If not possible and there are fewer computers, then group students in groups.
  • This lab can also be teacher led if there is only one computer in the classroom.
  • Directions for lab are online. See links below.

Activity 2 – Virtual Lab Punnett Square

Please follow this link and follow the online directions to Punnett Square Virtual Lab:

Activity 3 -Virtual Lab 2 - Punnett Square: Scenarios

Please follow this link and follow the online directions:

NGSSS Science Supplemental ResourcesPage 1

BiologySC.912.L.16.1

Anti-Discrimination Policy

Federal and State Laws

The School Board of Miami-Dade County, Florida adheres to a policy of nondiscrimination in employment and educational programs/activities and strives affirmatively to provide equal opportunity for all as required by:

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 - prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as amended - prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, or national origin.

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 - prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender.

Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) as amended - prohibits discrimination on the basis of age with respect to individuals who are at least 40.

The Equal Pay Act of 1963 as amended - prohibits gender discrimination in payment of wages to women and men performing substantially equal work in the same establishment.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 - prohibits discrimination against the disabled.

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) - prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in employment, public service, public accommodations and telecommunications.

The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) - requires covered employers to provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave to "eligible" employees for certain family and medical reasons.

The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 - prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions.

Florida Educational Equity Act (FEEA) - prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, gender, national origin, marital status, or handicap against a student or employee.

Florida Civil Rights Act of 1992 - secures for all individuals within the state freedom from discrimination because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, handicap, or marital status.

Title II of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA) - prohibits discrimination against employees or applicants because of genetic information.

Boy Scouts of America Equal Access Act of 2002 – no public school shall deny equal access to, or a fair opportunity for groups to meet on school premises or in school facilities before or after school hours, or discriminate against any group officially affiliated with Boy Scouts of America or any other youth or community group listed in Title 36 (as a patriotic society).

Veterans are provided re-employment rights in accordance with P.L. 93-508 (Federal Law) and Section 295.07 (Florida Statutes), which stipulate categorical preferences for employment.

In Addition:

School Board Policies 1362, 3362, 4362, and 5517 - Prohibit harassment and/or discrimination against students, employees, or applicants on the basis of sex, race, color, ethnic or national origin, religion, marital status, disability, genetic information, age, political beliefs, sexual orientation, gender, gender identification, social and family background, linguistic preference, pregnancy, and any other legally prohibited basis. Retaliation for engaging in a protected activity is also prohibited.

Revised: (07.14)

NGSSS Science Supplemental Resources (2024)

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